APOSTILA ENTOMOLOGIA AGRICOLA PDF
GERÊNCIA DE VIGILÂNCIA DE ZOONOSES E ENTOMOLOGIA. GUIA DE Entomologia Agrícola – estuda e procura mecanismos de controle para os insetos. Engenharia Agrícola na UFCG. Sobre: Livro que trata de aspectos gerais da Entomologia. Arquivado no curso de Engenharia Agrícola na UFCG. Download. Gynandromorphism in the polyembryonic encyrtid Pentalitomastix plethoricus Cali. (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae). Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria.
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Most authors, especially paleontologists, consider theP aleoptera to be monophyletica nd thes ister group to the Neoptera, andl ist a number of apomorphies in support of thisv iew Kukalova-Peck, Part I, Psyche 7: Some very large forms evolved, for example, Bojophlebia prokopi with a wingspan of 45 cm. Phylogenetic Relationships of the Pterygota There are some 25—30 orders of living pterygote insects and about 10 containing only fossil forms, the number varying according to the authority consulted.
All paleodictyopteroids Upper Carboniferous- Permian had a hypognathous head with piercing-sucking mouthparts Figure 2.
By the Upper Carboniferous period, when conditions became suitable for fossilization, almost a dozen paleopteran and neopteran orders had evolved. The mandibles are not only dicondylic Chapter 3, Section 3. Meganeuropsis permiana with a cm wingspan. Rossfrom studies of body structure, and Hamiltonwho examined the wing venation of aw ide range of extant species as well as that off ossil forms, concluded that there are two primary evolutionaryl ines withint he Neoptera, theP liconeoptera and.
The early odonatoids differed from Ephemeroptera in features of their venation andi n having nymphst hat lacked abdominal gill plates, using instead the rectal branchial chamber for gas exchange Chapter 15, Section 4. These generally small predators already bore a strong resemblance to the extant Zygoptera and Anisoptera both in form and habits Figure 2. Unfortunately, complicating this important tool has been a tendency for authors to use different terminologies when describing thev eins and wing areas of different groups ofi nsects, an aspect that is dealtw ith more fully inC hapter 3 Section 4.
Aspectos do Neoconstitucionalismo Aspectos do Neoconstitucionalismo Material cedido pelo professor Jaciratan. In his scheme Figure 2. Arquivos Semelhantes Aspectos gerais sobre siderurgia Aspectos gerais sobre siderurgia, aula 2.
With further work, some of these will undoubtedly require splitting i. As noted earlier, the Diaphanopterodea, which may be the sister group of Paleodictyoptera, were unique among Paleoptera in that they were able to fold their wings.
Two major schools of thought exist with regard to the origin and relationships of these evolutionary lines. For example, Wheeler et al.
In contrast to theP aleoptera, which were inhabitants of open spaces, the Neoptera evolved toward a life among overgrown vegetation where thea bility to fold thew ings over thebackwhennotinusewouldbegreatlyadvantageous. Equally, molecular studies may give spurious results if the samples ize is too small. It is now appreciated that these fossils are paleopteran insects, most of whichb elong to theo rder Megasecoptera Hamilton, Kukalova,Revisional study of the order Paleodictyoptera in the Upper Carboniferous shales of Commentry, France.
Entomology (Gillott, ) – Livro que trata de aspectos gerais da Entomologia
Further, a recent studyo f 18S and 28S rDNA sequences from almost 30 species of Odonata, Ephemeroptera, and neopterans has provided strong support for the monophyly of the Paleoptera Hovmoller et al. This view is supported by Wheeler et al. Withk indp ermission of Kluwer AcademicP entomloogia and the authors.
T agricolz conclusion agrees with am olecular clock study indicating that insects arose int he EarlyS ilurian about million years agowith neopteran forms present by about million years ago Gaunt and Miles, The Permothemistida [formerly the Archodonata and included in the Paleodictyoptera by Carpenter ] were a small group, characterizedb y having greatlyr educed or no metathoracicw ings, short mouthparts, and unique wing venation Figure 2.
Carpenter recommended that at least the fore andh ind wings, head,a nd mouthparts should be known before a specimen is assigned to an order. Even so, none of these approaches is entirely agridola.
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agrifola The nature of their mouthparts suggests that nymphs were probably predators, some perhaps feeding on amphibian tadpoles Kukalova-Peck, Figure 2. To aid subsequent discussion of the evolutionary relationships within the Pterygota, the various orders referred to in the text are listed in Table 2.
The group includes two ordersProtodonata Meganisoptera UpperCarboniferous-Triassic andOdonata Triassic- Recent that are evidently closely related, some authorities even including the former in the latter order. Aspectos Ambientais Aspectos Ambientais. Entomology Gillott, Bruno row Enviado por: Adults of early Ephemeroptera Upper Carboniferous-Recent including apostjla Protoephemeroptera, formerly separatedb ecause of theirt wop airs ofi dentical wings differedf rom extant forms spostila having functional mouthparts.
Martins, Damasceno, Awada – Pronto-socorro Pronto-socorro: Carpenter published an authoritative account of the fossil Insecta in which he recognized nine orders of fossil pterygotes. Increasingly, morphological data and molecular information are being combined in massive cladistical analyses in an effort to resolve some long-standing arguments.
It has generally been assumed that the Paleoptera and Neoptera had a common ancestor [inthehypotheticalorderProtoptera Sharov, ]intheMiddleDevonian,althoughthere isn o fossil record of such an ancestor. BythePermianperiod,fromwhichmanymorefossilsareavailable,almostallofthemodern orders had been established.
Though most diaphanopterodeans were plant-juice feeders, Kukalova-Peck and Brauckmann observed that some Permian species were remarkably mosquitolikea nd speculated that these may have fed on blood. Only recently have protodonate juveniles been discovered Kukalova-Peck, ; these had a mask similar to that of odonate larvae see Figures 2.