BURSERA SCHLECHTENDALII PDF
EEB Greenhouse Accession Data for Bursera schlechtendalii. Bursera schlechtendalii is a species of plants with 32 observations. Brief summary. No one has contributed a brief summary to this page yet. Explore what EOL knows about Bursera schlechtendalii. Add a brief summary to this.
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The volatile compounds found in the leaves of Artemisia annua differ depending on whether biotypes have glandular trichomes or not Tellez et al. Many lineages in the phylogeny of Bursera contain plants from several of these chemical clusters Becerra, They are native often for many species endemic to the Americasfrom the southern United States south through to northern Argentinain tropical and warm temperate forest habitats. However, larvae reared on lettuce, regained full protection when their shields were removed and replaced with host-derived shields.
Extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography. The remaining third releases intermediate amounts of fluids that may partially bathe the leaf blade without producing a squirt. Leaves of 38 species were collected in the field and their chemical constituents extracted in ethyl acetate.
Accumulation of terpenoids is more expensive per gram than accumulation of most other primary and secondary metabolites Gershenzon, Bursera linanoe La Llave Rzed. Larvae of species that feed on hosts releasing little or no fluids when damaged typically do not regurgitate, release an anal secretion, or carry their feces on their backs.
A matrix of Euclidean distances between these species was constructed on the basis of the presence or absence of each compound. Many species of plants produce secretions such as resins, latices, gums, and mucilages stored under pressure in networks of canals throughout the cortex of the stems and in the leaves, where they follow the vascular bundles Fahn, ; Metcalfe and Chalk, Interaction between mechanical and chemical defenses involving terpenoids has been documented in at least one other system.
If the different compounds of a mixture act synergistically, greater toxicity or deterrence may result. Dominance Index values for the mixture of four squirting Bursera species black bars and for four non-squirting ones white bars. When such plants are damaged, there is an immediate release of fluids from injured tissues, often in copious quantities. Low scores on the first principal component signify an absence of compounds with low retention times.
We have measured the squirt response of a sample of 15 to 20 leaves in each of individual plants of Bursera schlechtendalii over 5 yr. We also found four sesquiterpenes, a diterpene, and several unidentified compounds.
It furthers the University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and bursrea by publishing worldwide. Also, simple compounds often require fewer steps, which decreases their substrate and cofactor costs.
These beetles also compensate for their higher risk of predation by utilizing the defensive compounds present in the plant against their own predators. Blepharida feeding on squirting plants have responded evolutionarily by cutting the resin canals, which often makes them more susceptible to predation.
The variation in squirt response tends to be less variable schlecthendalii than among individual plants, suggesting a genetic component to the squirt response Becerra, unpublished ms. In many species, canals transport antiherbivore repellents and toxins. Complex mixtures can also slow the rate at which herbivores can evolve resistance to plant defenses Pimentel and Belloti, Dendrogram of Bursera species based on chemical similarity.
Yet, this does not explain why only one or two monoterpenes dominate the mixture. This Sapindales -related article is a stub. Larvae of the chrysomelid, Blepharida schlechtendaliibite the midrib of Bursera schlechtendalii to stop the flow of resins going to the leaf.
We analyzed the leaves and squirt of Bursera schlechtendalii and the sfhlechtendalii, feces, regurgitate and anal secretion of Blepharida schlechtendalii Table 2. This evidence suggests that there is a correlation between mechanical and chemical defenses in Bursera. The genus is notable for its terpenoid secretions and exudates that arise from a system of arborescent resin canals Becerra and Venable, ; Becerra, a.
For example, canals in some Apiaceae store coumarins Berenbaum, Bursera schlechtendalii and Bursera biflora are representative of the squirting and non-squirting syndromes respectively.
Relative amounts of the main 10 to 15 compounds were used for bufsera Principal Component Analysis. Larvae of Blepharida species that feed on the Bursera species which release little or no fluids after damage, do not sever the leaf veins. The genus exhibits great chemical variation in schlechtemdalii terpenoid composition the number, identity, and relative amounts of individual terpenoids; Dominguez et al.
Thus, producing a very simple mixture of one or two simple monoterpenes may be an adaptation of squirting plants to alleviate the high metabolic costs of terpenoid synthesis. These beetles often carry spores of pathogenic fungi that infect the tree, weaken it, and accelerate its death. Early-instar larvae are apparently unable to sever the leaf veins.
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Latex and resin canals occur in more than 35, species Farrell et al. Perhaps the greater chemical complexity of their host makes it more difficult or more energetically expensive to sequester compounds for antipredator defense. The plant genus Bursera Burseraceae schllechtendalii about species distributed from southern United States to Peru.
Bursera species often produce complex mixtures containing many individual compounds, often belonging to several terpenoid types.
SERNEC – Bursera schlechtendalii
Bursera glabrifolia Kunth Engl. These plants are also susceptible to specialized insects that can deactivate canals by cutting veins or trenches Becerra, b. Schlechhtendalii Commons has media related to Bursera. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The costs are high because many of these enzymes are highly specific for the individual reactions of terpenoid biosynthesis.